Classic tool steel D2

D2 steel is an air-quenched, high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel. It has high wear resistance and anti-wear characteristics. After heat treatment, the hardness can reach the range of 55-62HRC, and it can be processed in the annealed state.D2 steel has almost no deformation when properly hardened. The high chromium content of D2 steel gives it mild corrosion resistance under hardened conditions.


D2 first appeared during World War II. It belongs to the category of non-stainless steel, semi-stainless steel tool steel. For now, D2 is very popular among tool manufacturers, knifemakers and tool factories, and almost every tool manufacturer uses D2. In addition to Ms. Matsuda Kikuo who can use D2, Bob Dozier is also one of the manufacturers that use D2. Benchmade butterflies also start to use D2 in its Axis AFCK, and BESS swamp rats also use D2 steel.

Sometimes D2 is also called "semi-stainless steel". It has a fairly high chromium content (12%), but this figure is not enough to classify it as stainless steel. However, it is more stain resistant than some other carbon steels and has excellent wear resistance. D2 is much stronger than high-quality stainless steel like ATS-34, but not as strong as the other non-stainless steel mentioned here. Good abrasion resistance, almost no rust, and good toughness. Together, these make D2 an ideal choice for a variety of tools.


But if you want a tool steel with better workability, you can consider A2 tool steel with a 5% chromium content and easy processing.

D2 steel can be used in: stamping or forming dies, punches, forming rolls, knives, scissors, cutting machines, tools, tire shredders, planer knives, shredder knives, etc. 

Forging: Slowly and uniformly heat to 700°C, and then quickly heat to 900/1040°C. D2 cannot be forged at a temperature lower than 925°C. Frequent heating is required to maintain proper forging temperature. Cool slowly after forging.

Annealing: Heat uniformly to 843/871°C, and then cool slowly at a rate not higher than 10°C/hour. After D2 annealing, a maximum hardness of 240 Brinell can be achieved.

Hardening: D2 tool steel is very sensitive to overheating during the quenching process, and the temperature cannot be overheated. Preheat slowly to 750/780°C, then soak; continue to heat to the final hardening temperature of 1000/1030°C, quench in oil or cool in air.

Tempering: Heat evenly to the required temperature and maintain the thickness per centimeter for 25 minutes. After cooling to room temperature, D2 can be double tempered at about 15°C lower than the first tempering.

Shanghai Histar Metal Co., Ltd

Post time: Mar-10-2021